- Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa, who had been living at the Hotel Roma in El Paso, Texas under the alias “Doroteo Arango“, crossed the Rio Grande back into Mexico, along with eight companions, to rebuild his army and to overthrow Mexican President Victoriano Huerta. By year’s end, Villa would have control of the state of Chihuahua, which served as his base for anti-government raids.
- The tercentenary of the reign of the Romanov dynasty was celebrated across the Russian Empire, although on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia and 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar used in the rest of the world, the date was February 21. Tsar Nicholas II, the last of the dynasty, would be deposed less than five years later.
Contrary to the tone of faux confidence of the Anglo-American press, Victoriano Huerta faced increasing armed opposition to the stabilization of his rule. Venustiano Carranza had immediately begun to organize a resistance to the Huerta-Diaz coup from his base in Coahuila state in North Mexico. Carranza was joined by the arrival of Pancho Villa in Chihuahua state from the United States, to where he had fled in 1912 to escape execution by Huerta when he was at the head of the Federal armies under the Madero presidency. Here Villa was to reorganize the famous Division del Norte, at its maximum consisting of up to 50,000 soldiers. Despite their alliance, Carranza and Villa came from completely different social origins: Carranza was the son of wealthy ranchers from Coahuila state, politically a liberal of the Francisco Madero type, and would be the key force behind the Constitution of 1917. Villa, from Durango state, was the son of peones de hacienda, essentially a post-feudal sharecropping economic institution that could also include mining and ranching operations. Many were owned by the Catholic Church, explaining the hostility to the Church in the Revolution. The hacienda system was legally abolished in 1917. Villa’s army led the expropriation of land for redistribution to peasants, going beyond the liberalism of Madero and Carranza at that time.